Turning is a machining technique that involves removing, using cutting tools, the material on a cylindrical initial piece to obtain a final piece. The metal machining company removes the material through rotation of the workpiece and the movement of the cutting tool.
There are different filming operations that can be divided into two categories. External turning: when the tool only mills the outer surface of the part, it is called outside turning. shows the main external turning operations (dressing, turning, cutting). In red appear the parts machined by the cutting tool.
Inner turning: When the tool is working inside the room, we are talking about interior shooting. Unlike the external turning, the tool is then placed at the end of the workpiece. The workpiece is placed in the chuck and clamped through the jaws. A motor allows the rotation of the mandrel fixed on the spindle. The cutting tool is positioned in a tool holder and tightened with screws. The tool holder is set up on a tool turret. The transverse carriage and the longitudinal thus ensure the movements of the tool by feed motors.
The tailstock makes it possible to carry out pointing, centering, drilling and boring operations at the end of the workpiece. To meet all the needs of the industry (complexity of parts, machining time, capacity), the towers have evolved. Some towers are so complex that they can be an alternative to machining centers. Here are the main types of tours:
Conventional Tower: These are the basic towers. The operations are performed by an operator who must adjust the various parameters and start the operations.
Automatic lathe (single spindle or multi spindle): The automatic lathe allows to machine parts according to a setting, without any intervention on the part of the operator. When multispindle, the automatic lathe can make several pieces at the same time.
The CNC lathe is equipped with a numerical control which controls the machine by following a program carried out manually or automatically.
The structure of a CNC lathe is more complex and depends on the configuration of the machine. The workpieces are placed in the mandrels of the main and secondary spindles. The numerical control manages the rotation of the 2 spindles, the choice of the cutting tools (by ordering the rotation of the upper and lower turrets), the movements of the cutting tools (by controlling the movements of the turrets).
CNC lathes are therefore characterized by (the following elements):
– Number of turrets
– Motorized turrets or not
– Number of tools on the turret
– Type of numerical control